40 Women and Gender Research Paper Topics - A Research Guide

 

research paper on gender roles

May 21,  · Free research paper sample about Native American Gender Roles: perspective on male and female gender roles, position of them in Native American societies, the . - Gender Roles Gender Roles; a set of societal norms dictating what types of behaviors are generally considered acceptable, appropriate or desirable for a person based on their actual or perceived sex. In many societies the role of women and men have been diverged in different areas throughout life, whether it be home, the workplace, or marriage. PDF | Gender roles are based on the different expectations that individuals, groups, and societies have of individuals based on their sex and based on each society's values and beliefs about gender.


History of Gender Roles Research Papers


Historically, the development of human society was accompanied by the changing views on the gender roles and the perception of the concept of gender by members of human community. In this regard, the development of views of Native Americans on gender and gender roles is particularly noteworthy because, in the course of time, it has evolved considerably and the role of the European colonization in the process of this evolution can hardly be underestimated, research paper on gender roles.

In fact, Native Americans had their own unique concept of gender and their views on gender roles often varied from those of Research paper on gender roles, especially in relation to the Berdache phenomenon. At the same time, it would be a mistake to estimate that the views of Native Americans on the theory of gender, including gender roles and the definition of the concept of gender was totally different from those of Europeans.

In fact, it should be said research paper on gender roles Europeans laid emphasis and accelerated the developed of the existing stereotypes and biases in relation to gender roles, if they meet standards and norms established in Europe, while they suppressed all those norms and standards accepted in Native American tribes which did not meet European morals and norms.

Nevertheless, even the European colonization has failed to eliminate the unique view of Native Americans on gender and Indian tribes preserved their traditions for a long period of time and, nowadays, it is even possible to observe a kind of revival of old traditions in the new socio-cultural environment.

Speaking about the Native American perspective on the theory of gender, it should be said that Indian tribes inhabiting the continent before the arrival of Europeans and living in an isolated world, could not have failed to avoid the development of common stereotypes, norms and traditions in regard to gender roles and relationship between different genders, which were typical to other civilizations.

In this respect, research paper on gender roles, it should be said that many views, stereotypes and norms of Native Americans were similar to other people whom they did not even have contacts with, including Europeans. These similarities are particularly obvious in relations between male and females.

The development and evolution of gender roles in Native American tribes was basically similar to those that took place in other parts of the world. On the dawn of human civilization in America, females played very important role in the development and survival of tribes, while males could not provide tribes with the stable supply of food and goods essential for the development of tribes.

However, in the course of the development of human society in America, the position of males have started to change and males started to play increasingly more important role, to the extent that they have started to play the dominant role in the life of Indian tribes, research paper on gender roles.

Nevertheless, it is important to underline that the Native American perspective on gender and gender roles was, to a significant extent, defined by their philosophy and mentality. Unlike European civilization, Native Americans have preserved their unity with nature and, in fact, they viewed themselves as a part of the surrounding nature. As a result, their gender roles and the concept of gender at large research paper on gender roles viewed in terms of the natural predetermination.

What is meant here is research paper on gender roles fact that they viewed gender as the gift of nature or gods and, therefore, their gender views were viewed as being defined by nature and by some supreme laws which were established by gods and nature, research paper on gender roles.

Basically, Native American societies were characterized as male dominated societies, though the domination of male was probably not so obvious and strong as it was in Europe at the epoch when first Europeans had started to arrive in the continent.

At the same time, it should be said that, as a rule, Native Americans lived in small communities where gender roles were clear and relationships between genders were regulated by traditions and established norms.

As a rule, research paper on gender roles, Native American tribes were headed by males who actually constituted the elite of Indian communities. In this regard, it is possible to refer to the most advanced Indian civilizations such as Maya, Incas, or Aztecs. In fact, these civilizations managed to create the most powerful empires in America and their social structure was very complicated, especially in comparison to other less developed Native American tribes, which had poor or no state organization at all.

At the same time, it is in the most developed civilization the dominance of males was particularly obvious and males occupied the top position in the social hierarchy. At any rate, rulers of Native American empires were male, priesthood was also predominantly male, while military forces represented a significant power without which the development and the progress of Indian empires was simply unthinkable.

As a result, as the role of males increased, they concentrated the political, economic, military and religious power in their hands that determined their domination, which was particularly obvious in the most developed Native American research paper on gender roles. In such a context, it is obvious that the major areas where males were particularly successful in Native American society was socio-economic, military and political activities.

In fact, on analyzing the development of May city-states, research paper on gender roles, as well as other prominent Native American civilizations, it should be said that the practically all spheres of social life of Native American societies were under control or influence of males.

Basically, males were focused on socio-economic activities, but the development of Native American empires increased the demand for the military force which was supplied by males too. The position of females was not so significant, especially, in the most advanced Native American civilizations.

It should be pointed out that females gender roles were often limited by households, though it is impossible to estimate that females were totally excluded from social activities. In fact, they preserved opportunities to participate in socially significant activities, but the development of Native American and the growing complexity of the social hierarchy in the most developed Indian states gradually led to the decreasing role of females as socially active members of local communities.

Instead, they were forced to concentrate mainly on their households and families. It is important to underline the fact that such a shift from social life to the household and family research paper on gender roles occurred under the impact of the changing socio-economic environment, in which Native American females proved to be less competitive compared to male who research paper on gender roles to gained the dominant position in Native American societies.

Nevertheless, it should be said that the deteriorating position of female of Native American societies was determined by objective factor and physical differences between males and females, such as the inability of females to be equally effective warriors as males were.

At the same time, females were not really oppressed intentionally, but it was rather an evolutionary process which gradually defined the gender roles which were strictly followed in Native American communities, research paper on gender roles.

At first glance, the dominating role of males and the oppressed position of females could be viewed similar to the gender roles established in Europe and other parts of the world. However, it is necessary to underline that Native American society had a different view on gender roles. To put it more precisely, Native Americans, as it has been just mentioned above, viewed the dominant position and the focus of females on households as the logical and natural process, but, unlike European, for instance, Native Americans basically stood on the ground that the relationship between males and females are established not by some social norms or rules that are created uniquely by humans, but, instead, they believed that these norms are created by nature and gods.

Furthermore, it should research paper on gender roles said that the substantial dominance of males over females was basically the characteristic of the most developed Native American civilizations that had a very complicated social structure. In this respect, it is necessary to emphasize the fact that there are not many Native American civilizations that had such a complicated social structure as Mayas, or Aztecs had. In actuality, the overwhelming majority of Native Americans lived in rather poorly developed societies.

What is meant here is the fact that the social structure of many Native American tribes was very simple and people lived in accordance with the existing traditions and norms that were transmitted from one generation to another. Obviously, the development of Native American societies influenced significantly the concept of gender and gender roles that were established in Indian tribes.

In fact, the absence of the complicated social structure and hierarchy in Native American tribes was another important factor that minimized possible negative effects of the differentiation of gender roles in society. What is meant here is the fact that the majority of Native American societies were comprised by relatively small communities where there were no written restrictions and norms, instead, there existed only traditional norms and rules, which all member of the community should obey.

In this respect, the dominance of males was not so pressing on females in such small communities compared to more developed Native American civilizations of Aztecs, research paper on gender roles, for instance, or European civilization.

As a result, members of the community both males and females were relatively free in their gender roles, though traditionally maternal functions of females were superior to their social functions and often decreased the opportunities for females to take an active part in social life.

But again, it is necessary to remind that in a small community, where there was no complicated social hierarchy, females had more opportunities to influence socially important decisions because the life of such small communities was determined by the entire community and not by the selected group of people, or socio-economic and political elite, as was the case of more developed Native American civilizations and European countries.

In addition, it should be said that nature played an extremely important role in the life of Native Americans and naturally influenced their perception of the concept of gender and gender roles. As a result, Native Americans perceived gender as research paper on gender roles gift of nature. This means that they did not attempt to construct some kind of male-female opposition, or restricted significantly other gender, research paper on gender roles.

Instead, Native Americans perceived themselves and each other as they were created by nature and, what is more, they did not attempt to replace nature. In such a situation, the relationship of males and females were deprived of significant tension and contradictions, though, it is an undeniable fact that males and females fulfilled the different gender roles in Native American societies.

Obviously, Native Americans developed their unique concept of gender and perceived gender roles, to a significant extent, in different way than Europeans and other peoples did, research paper on gender roles.

In this respect, it should be said that the Native American perspective on the theory of gender was different from European one, research paper on gender roles, for instance, in regard to the number of gender and the concept of gender at large.

It is important to underline that Native Americans developed the concept of multiple gender. Unlike many European cultures, which have a definite view on gender as male-female opposition, Native Americans stood on the ground that there could be more than two genders. In such a way, it is possible to speak about the multiple gender that differentiates consistently Native American societies. This concept is really unique and, research paper on gender roles, in this respect, it is possible to refer to the Berdache phenomenon which was an important part of the socio-cultural life of Native Americans.

Naturally, such a view on the concept of gender produced a profound impact on the attitude of Native Americans to people which did not meet the standard, European definition of gender, i. In such a situation, children, who were born physically male or female and yet showed the proclivity for the opposite gender, were encouraged to live out their lives in the gender role, which fit them the best.

The berdache could adopt the clothing of women, associate and be involved with women, do the work normally associated with women, research paper on gender roles, marry a man and take part in many spiritual ceremonies of the tribe, research paper on gender roles. At the same time, the concept of bedrache was referred not only to males but also to females, though the evidences of female versions of the bedrache are rarer compared to research paper on gender roles of males.

The attitude of Native Americans to bedraches perfectly reflects the Native American perspective on the theory of gender. Instead, they highly appreciated this difference and contributed to the integration of representatives of different or third gender into the normal social life. What is more important, Native American communities provided ample opportunities for its members to chose freely the gender roles they preferred the most.

In such a way, Native American societies were not restricted by gender opposition or strict norms, though it should be pointed out that there still remained certain traditions that regulated the norms of males and females behavior and lifestyle, though Native Americans were free to chose which model of behavior they would follow. In this regard, their personal choice and internal state was the basis for the decision made by Native Americans.

In such a context, the difference of Native Americans was viewed rather as a gift than a problem. At the same time, it should be said that berdaches were even in a privileged position compared to traditional representatives of male and female genders. In fact, berdaches have a larger opportunity of choice compared to males or females. For instance, being physically born a male, a berdache could freely lead a female lifestyle and he could be treated as a female.

In contrast, traditional males and females were deprived of this opportunity, though research paper on gender roles they did not really want to change their gender role. Consequently, by the Indian point of view, someone who is different offers advantages to society precisely because he or she is freed from the restriction of the usual Roscoe,p.

Obviously, this is an absolutely different view on the world at large and on the theory of gender in particular. Naturally, European colonizers that arrived in America could not accept such philosophy and they started to change traditional Native American view on gender and gender roles. However, in spite of significant changes in the traditional perception of Native Americans of the concept of gender, they still often attempt to defend their traditional view on berdaches.

Thus, taking into account all above mentioned, it is possible to conclude that the Native American perspective on the theory of gender is quite different from the traditional European perspective, which is, at the moment, widely spread and is dominant in the Western world as well as in America. In spite of the dramatic impact of Europeans on the American culture, Native Americans have, to a significant extent, preserved their uniqueness in their views on gender and gender roles.

References : Axtell, James, et al. Rethinking American Indian History. Donald L. Bataille, M. Mullen Sands. Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press, research paper on gender roles. Two-Spirit People.

Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press. New York: St. Roscoe, Will. Complied by Gay American Indians. The Zuni Man-Woman. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. Williams, Walter L. Boston: Beacon Press. If you need a high-quality customized research paper on native american or gender roles topics written from scratch, you can easily hire professional academic writers online:.

Click here to read more about custom written research papers! Skip to content Introduction Historically, the development of human society was accompanied by the changing views on the gender roles and the perception of the concept of gender by members of human community. The position of males in Native American societies Basically, research paper on gender roles, Native American societies were characterized as male dominated societies, though the domination of male was probably not so obvious and strong as it was in Europe at the epoch when first Europeans had started to arrive in the continent.

The position of females in Native American societies The position of females was not so significant, especially, in the most advanced Native American civilizations. The uniqueness of Native American perspective on gender roles At first glance, the dominating role of males and the oppressed position of females could be viewed similar to the gender roles established in Europe and research paper on gender roles parts of the world.

 

Top 10 Gender Research Topics & Writing Ideas

 

research paper on gender roles

 

Gender roles essay topics. Our gender inequality research paper topics are devoted to different issues that display discrimination of women throughout the world. Choose any topic you like, research it, brainstorm ideas, and create a detailed gender inequality essay outline before you start working on . How to Write a Research Paper on History of Gender Roles. This page is designed to show you how to write a research project on the topic you see here. Use our sample or order a custom written research paper from Paper Masters. In this paper, our primary goal was to describe trends in research on gender development published in Sex Roles over the past few decades. Overall, the topics receiving the greatest emphasis—Gender Differences, Socialization, and Stereotyping, and to a somewhat lesser degree, Gender Identity—were relatively stable over tuaraftars.gq by: